Reading Research References


Topic: Echo reading

Knapp, N. F., & Winsor, A. P. (1998). A reading apprenticeship for delayed primary readers.  Reading Research and Instruction, 38, 13-29.


Topping, K. (1987). Paired reading: A powerful technique for parent use. The Reading Teacher, 40, 604-614.


Topic: Elkonin boxes (to segment sounds of spoken words in a sequential fashion and make them aware of the positions of sounds in spoken words)

Elkonin, D. B. (1973). USSR. In J. Dowing (Ed.), Comparative Reading (pp. 551-579), New York: MacMillan.


Topic: generating questions

Davey, B., & McBride, S. (1986). Effects of question-generation training on reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 256-262.


Rosenshine, B. , Meister, C. & Chapman, S. (1996). Teaching students to generate questions: A review of the intervention studies. Review of Educational Research 66, 181-221.


Topic: isolating middle sounds in words

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P.E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and beginning to read—A casual connection. Nature, 301, 419-421.


Maslanka, P., & Joseph, L. M. (2002). A comparison of two phonological awareness techniques between samples of preschool

children. Reading Psychology: An International Quarterly, 23, 271-288.


Topic: main idea maps

Berkowitz, S. J. (1986). Effects of instruction in text organization on sixth-grade students’ memory for expository reading. Reading

Research Quarterly, 21,161-178.


Topic: mental imagery or visualization

Gambrell, L. B. & Bates, R. B. (1986). Mental imagery and the comprehension-monitoring of fourth- and fifth-grade poor readers.

Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 454-464.


Gambrell, L. B. & Jawitz, P. B. (1993). Mental imagery, text illustrations, and children’s story comprehension and recall. Reading

Research Quarterly, 23, 265-273.


Topic: onsets and rimes

Adams, G. I., & Englemann, S. (1996) Research on Direct Instruction: 25 Years beyond DISTAR. Seattle, WA: Educational

Achievement Systems.


Gaskins, I. W., Downer, M. A., Anderson, R. C., Cunningham, P. M. , Gaskins, R. W., Schommer, M., & The Teachers of Benchmark

School (1988). A metacognitive approach to phonics: Using what you know to decode what you don’t know.

Remedial and Special Education, 9, 36-41.


Goswani, U. (1986). Children’s use of analogy in learning to read: A developmental study. Journal of Experimental Child

Psychology, 42, 73-83.


Johnston, F. R. (1999). The timing and teaching of word families. The Reading Teacher, 53, 64-75.


Topic: predicting

 Pressley, M. (1999). Self-regulated comprehension processing and its development through instruction. In L. B. Gambelll, L. M. Morrow, S. B. Neuman, and M.Pressley (Eds.), Best Practices in Literacy Instruction (pp. 90-97). New York:Guilford Press.


Gambrell, L. B., and Massoni, S. A. (1999) Principles of best practice: Finding the common ground. In L. B. Gambrell, L. M. Morrow, S. B. Neuman, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Best Practices in Literacy Instruction (pp. 11-21). New York:  Guilford Press.


Topic: Readers’ Theater

 Keehn, S. (2003). The effect of instruction and practice through readers’ theater on young readers’ oral reading fluency. Reading Research and Instruction, 42, 40-61.


Topic: Reciprocal questioning

 Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Bakken, J. P., & Whedon, C. (1996). Reading comprehension: A synthesis of research in learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.). Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities (Vol.10, pp. 277-303). Greenwich, CT: JAL.


Topic: Reciprocal Teaching

 Lysynchuk, L. M. Pressley, M., & Vye, N. J. (1990). Reciprocal teaching improves standardized reading comprehension performance in poor comprehenders. The Elementary School Journal, 90, 469-484.


Topic: repeated reading

 Rasinski, T. (1990) Effects of repeated reading and listening while reading on reading fluency. Journal of Educational Research, 83, 147-150.


 McCormick. S. (Ed.). (2003) Instructing Students Who Have Literacy Problems.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


 Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 3-21.


Topic: semantic webs

 Dufflemeyer, F. A., & Banwart, B. H. (1993). Word maps for adjectives and verbs.  The Reading Teacher, 46, 351-353.


 Rupley, W. H., Logan, J. W., & Nichols, W. D. (1998/1999). Vocabulary instruction in a balanced reading program. The Reading Teacher, 52, 336-346.


Topic: sound boxes

 Ball, E., & Blachman, B. (1991). Does phonemic awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 49-66.


 Bentin, S., & Leshem, H. (1993). On the interaction of between phonological awareness and reading acquisition: It’s a two-way street. Annals of Dyslexia, 43, 125-148.


 Bryne, B., & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1991). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic awareness to young children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 451-455.


 Hohn, W. E., & Ehri, L. C. (1983). Do alphabet letters help prereaders acquire phonemic segmentation skill? Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 752-762.


Topic: sound manipulation activities (identifying beginning, middle, and ending sounds in isolation; substituting sounds; sound deletion; blending sounds)

 Yopp, H. K. (1988). The validity and reliability of phonemic awareness tests. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 159-177.


 Edelen-Smtih, P.J. (1997) Hownow brown cow: Phoneme awareness activities for collaborative classrooms. Intervention for School and Clinic, 33, 103-111.


 Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J.K., Laughon P., Simmons, K., & Raschotte, C.A. (1993).  Development of young readers’ phonological processing abilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 83-103.


Topic: story maps

 Awe-Hwa, K., Vaughn, S., Wanzek, J., & Wei, S. (2004). Graphic organizers and their effects on the reading comprehension of students with LD: A synthesis of research.  Journal of Learning Disabilites, 37, 105-118.


 Boulineau, T., Fore, C., Hagan-Burke, S., & Burke, M. D. (2004) Use of story mapping to increase the story-grammar text comprehension of elementary students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 27, 105-120.


 Davis, Z. T. (1994). Effects of prereading story-mapping on elementary readers’ comprehension. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 353-360.


 Gardill, M. C., & Jitendra, A. K. (1999). Advanced story-map instruction. Effects on the reading comprehension of students with learning disabilities. Journal of Special Education, 33, 2-17.


 Idol, L. (1987). Group story mapping: A comprehension strategy for both skilled and unskilled readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20, 196-205.


 Vallecorsa, A. L., & deBettencourt, L. U. (1997). Using a mapping procedure to teach reading and writing skills to middle grade students with learning disabilities.  Education and Treatment of Children, 20, 173-189.


Topic: Think-Alouds

 Davey, B. (1983). Think Aloud: Modeling the cognitive processes of reading comprehension. Journal of Reading, 27, pp. 44-47.


 Olshavsky, J. E. (1976-1977). Reading as problem-solving: An investigation of strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 12, pp. 654-674.


Topic: word sorts

 Juel, C. & Midden-Cup, C. (2000). Learning to read words: Linguistic units and instructional strategies. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 458-489.


 Santa, C. M., & Hoien, T. (1999). An assessment of Early Steps: A program for early intervention or reading problems. Reading Research Quarterly, 34, 54-79.


 Zutell, J. (21998). Word sorting: A developmental spelling approach to word study fordelayed readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 14, 219-238.


These references can be located in the following sources:


Beers, K. (2003). When kids can’t read, what teachers can do. Portsmouth, NH:  Heinemann.


 Joseph, L. M. (2006). Understanding, assessing, and intervening on reading  problems. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.





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